Sri Lanka has a long-history of traditional use of natural resources (Mahindapala, 2005). For
example, there has been rice cultivation in Sri Lanka since 800 BC (Jayawardena, 2003).
However, with the advent of the Green Revolution in the mid-20th century, many of these
traditional practices went into decline, and with this decline, the practice of sustainable use was
sacrificed for high yields and use of technology.
Given the challenge of reducing the current threats facing biodiversity, while ensuring sustainable
use (Target 6), an obvious pathway is the revival of traditional methods. To this end, Target 7 was
formulated and its actions involve learning from traditional practices; bio-prospecting through
traditional knowledge; reducing dependence on natural harvesting through establishment of
outgrowing systems; and improving community-based resource management.