Tropical thorn forest
This ecosystem is found in the arid zone that is northwest and southeast of the island. Temperatures are very high over 34 o C, and prolong drought period from May to September, the rainfall is below 1250 mm annually. The vegetation is a low open thorny scrub with isolated patches of trees.
The common species in these types of forests are: Heen Karamba (Carissa spirarium), Eraminiya (Zizyphus), Maha Andara (Acacia leucopholea and Acacia planiformis), Andara (Dicrostachys cinera), The isolated patches of trees comprise mainly of Maliththan (Salvador persica) and Palu (Manilkara hexandra). Endemic plant species are almost absent in these forests. In Yala and Bundala, this ecosystem together with its neighbouring grasslands and water bodies, harbour large mammals (leopard, elephants, spotted deer, sambhur and wild pig, primates etc.), numerous water-and inland bird species (both migrant and resident) reptiles, amphibians and a diversity of invertebrate species.