Sri Lanka, though small in size, has a varied climate and topography which has resulted in a rich biodiversity, distributed within a wide range of ecosystems. Within this broad differentiation of climate types, there is a multitude of ecosystems.

Ecosystem Diversity in Sri Lanka

Ecosystem Diversity in Sri Lanka

Ecosystems in Sri Lanka

EcosystemsProvisional extent (ha)
Forest and related ecosystems
•        tropical wet lowland evergreen forest (includes lowland and mid elevation rain forests)124340.8
•        tropical sub-montane forest65792.3
•        tropical montane forest3099.5
•        tropical moist monsoon forest221977
•        tropical dry monsoon (mixed evergreen) forest1027544.1
•        tropical thorn forest (Arid Zone)NA
•        riverine dry forest18352.1
·         grasslands (wet pathana, dry pathana, savannah, etc)>75,000.0
Inland wetland ecosystems
•        flood plainsNA
•        swampsNA
•        lentic waters (tanks/reservoirs and ponds)169941
•        river basins5924500
•        wet villu grasslands12500
Coastal and marine ecosystems
•        mangroves6080
•        salt marshes23819
•        sand dunes and beaches19394
•        mud flats9754
•        sea grass bedsNA
•        lagoons and estuaries129075
•        coral reefs68000
Agricultural ecosystems
•        paddy lands977561
•        fruit cultivations85066
•        small crop holdings or other field crops (pulses, sesame etc)130297
•        vegetables (including, root and tuber crops)85, 663
•        crop plantations (major export crops)716320
•        minor export crops119862
•        home gardens (cultivated)76483.2
•        chena lands (slash and burn cultivation)NA